This research which was published 2 days ago attests to the importance of #exercise, and movement which attest to have a positive impact on #neurogenesis. We feel that the results of this experiment may also have positive implications for the results of using our health-care/lifestyle device called HOVR. I.e. continuous movement (while working or sitting) positively impact neurogenesis, which in turn impacts motor, metabolic and the nervous systems.
Both astronauts and patients affected by chronic movement-limiting pathologies face impairment in muscle and/or brain performance. Increased patient survival expectations and the expected longer stays in space by astronauts may result in prolonged motor deprivation and consequent pathological effects. Severe movement limitation can influence not only the motor and metabolic systems but also the nervous system, altering neurogenesis and the interaction between motoneurons and muscle cells.
A severe reduction of movement is present in many different pathologies such as spinal cord injury, spinal muscle atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis, and can be due to impairment of the skeleton muscular apparatus or of the central and peripheral nervous system. This condition is also common in #bedrest patients (due to a wide range of pathologies) or in astronauts who experience low gravity for prolonged periods. Reduction of movement or gravity stimuli exerts an important effect on the human body, altering the activity of many organs including the brain.
The study adds more information for a better understanding of the role of movement reduction in NSCs features. It is known that physical inactivity is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (Hashimoto et al., 2017) since hippocampal atrophy was associated with the AD. In a recent meta-analysis, Guure and collaborators found that physical activity is more protective against AD than all the other forms of dementia (Guure et al., 2017).
Physical activity induces an increase in the hippocampal volume and ameliorates the neurogenesis (Bednarczyk et al., 2009) most likely via the augmentation of the blood flow (Cass, 2017). Consistently with this, the level of VEGF in the plasma of suspended rats decreases after 14 days of treatment, whereas it remains unaltered in the brain (Yasuhara et al., 2007) and in the soleus muscle (Wagatsuma, 2008). Long suspension (4 weeks) induced an inflammatory response in the common carotid artery of rats exposed to simulated microgravity, indicating that the inflammatory response may be a cellular mechanism that is responsible for the arterial remodeling during exposure to simulated microgravity (Liu et al., 2014).
Epigenetic modifications affect not only DNA and proteins, but also coding and non-coding RNAs. RNAs can be modified in more than 100 ways including N 6-methyladenosine (m6A), N 7- methylguanosine (m7G), m5C, pseudouridine, and (Jia et al., 2013). Many such modifications have a basic function in controlling aspects of RNA metabolism, such as splicing, transport, translation, and degradation. These active RNA modifications represent another level of gene regulation, termed “ .” The discovery that Cdk5rap1 (which acts as in mitochondria RNA) was altered in its expression after motor deprivation is very intriguing in this context, and opens a new link between neurogenesis metabolism and cell regulation.
More about HOVR can be found www.hovr.co.jp
Find the full article here: Reduction of Movement in Neurological Diseases: Effects on Neural Stem Cells Characteristics